Generic Name: selenium sulfide (Topical route)

se-LEE-nee-um SUL-fide

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

Dandrex Selenos Selseb Selsun Blue Medicated Treatment Tersi Foam

In Canada

Versel

Available Dosage Forms:

Lotion Cream Shampoo Foam Suspension

Therapeutic Class: Antiseborrheic

Uses For Tersi Foam

Selenium sulfide 1% and 2.5% strengths are used on the scalp to help control the symptoms of dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.

Selenium sulfide 2.5% strength is used also on the body to treat tinea versicolor (a type of fungus infection of the skin).

In the United States, the 2.5% strength is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Before Using Tersi Foam

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

There is no specific information comparing use of selenium sulfide in infants and children with use in other age groups; however, this medicine is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in children than it does in adults.

Geriatric

Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is no specific information comparing use of selenium sulfide in the elderly with use in other age groups, this medicine is not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than it does in younger adults.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicine.

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of this medicine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

Blistered, raw, or oozing areas on your scalp or body—Use of this medicine on these areas may increase the chance of absorption through the skin Proper Use of selenium sulfide

This section provides information on the proper use of a number of products that contain selenium sulfide. It may not be specific to Tersi Foam. Please read with care.

If you are using the 2.5% strength of selenium sulfide: Use this medicine only as directed. Do not use it more often than recommended on the label, unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

If you are using the 1% strength of selenium sulfide : For best results, use this medicine at least 2 times a week or as directed by your doctor.

To use selenium sulfide for dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp:

Before using this medicine, wet the hair and scalp with lukewarm water. Apply enough medicine (1 or 2 teaspoonfuls) to the scalp to work up a lather. Allow the lather to remain on the scalp for 2 to 3 minutes, then rinse. Apply the medicine again and rinse well. If this medicine is used on light or blond, gray, or chemically treated (bleached, tinted, permanent-waved) hair, rinse your hair well for at least 5 minutes after using the medicine to lessen the chance of hair discoloration. After treatment, wash your hands well.

To use selenium sulfide for tinea versicolor of the body:

Apply the medicine to the affected areas of your body, except for your face and genitals (sex organs). Work up a lather using a small amount of water. Allow the medicine to remain on your skin for 10 minutes. Rinse your body well to remove all the medicine.

Do not use this medicine if blistered, raw, or oozing areas are present on your scalp or the area of your body that is to be treated , unless otherwise directed by your doctor.

Keep this medicine away from the eyes. If you should accidentally get some in your eyes, flush them thoroughly with water.

Dosing

The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

For lotion dosage form: For dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis: Adults and children—If you are using the 1% lotion, use on the scalp two times a week. If you are using the 2.5% lotion, use on the scalp two times a week for two weeks, then use one time a week or less often. Infants—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor. For tinea versicolor: Adults and children—Use the 2.5% lotion on the body one time a day for seven days. Infants—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor. Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of this medicine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Precautions While Using Tersi Foam

If your condition does not get better after regular use of this medicine, or if it gets worse, check with your doctor.

Tersi Foam Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common or rare Skin irritation

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common Unusual dryness or oiliness of hair or scalp Less common Increase in normal hair loss

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Tersi Topical side effects (in more detail)

The information contained in the Thomson Reuters Micromedex products as delivered by Drugs.com is intended as an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatment. It is not a substitute for a medical exam, nor does it replace the need for services provided by medical professionals. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before taking any prescription or over the counter drugs (including any herbal medicines or supplements) or following any treatment or regimen. Only your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for you.

The use of the Thomson Reuters Healthcare products is at your sole risk. These products are provided "AS IS" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Thomson Reuters Healthcare and Drugs.com make no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the products. Additionally, THOMSON REUTERS HEALTHCARE MAKES NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE OPINIONS OR OTHER SERVICE OR DATA YOU MAY ACCESS, DOWNLOAD OR USE AS A RESULT OF USE OF THE THOMSON REUTERS HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. Thomson Reuters Healthcare does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the Thomson Reuters Healthcare products.

More Tersi Foam Topical resources Tersi Foam Topical Side Effects (in more detail) Tersi Foam Topical Use in Pregnancy & Breastfeeding Tersi Foam Topical Support Group 0 Reviews for Tersi Topical - Add your own review/rating Compare Tersi Foam Topical with other medications Seborrheic Dermatitis Tinea Versicolor



Generic Name: tamsulosin (tam soo LOE sin)



Generic Name: travoprost ophthalmic (TRA voe prost off THAL mik)



Pronunciation: a-SEET-a-MIN-oh-fen/pen-TAZ-oh-seen



Generic Name: Thioguanine



1. Name Of The Medicinal Product

Tambocor™ 50mg Tablets

2. Qualitative And Quantitative Composition

Each tablet contains flecainide acetate 50mg

3. Pharmaceutical Form

Tablet

4. Clinical Particulars

Tambocor is a potent sodium channel blocking agent for the treatment of the conditions listed below:

The effect on the JT interval is insignificant at therapeutic levels.

4.1 Therapeutic Indications

Tambocor tablets are indicated for:

a) AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia; arrhythmias associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and similar conditions with accessory pathways.

b) Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with disabling symptoms when treatment need has been established and in the absence of left ventricular dysfunction (see 4.4, Special warnings and special precautions for use). Arrhythmias of recent onset will respond more readily.

c) Symptomatic sustained ventricular tachycardia.

d) Premature ventricular contractions and/or non-sustained ventricular tachycardia which are causing disabling symptoms, where these are resistant to other therapy or when other treatment has not been tolerated.

Tambocor tablets can be used for the maintenance of normal rhythm following conversion by other means.

Tambocor tablets are for oral administration.

4.2 Posology And Method Of Administration

Adults: Supraventricular arrhythmias: The recommended starting dosage is 50mg twice daily and most patients will be controlled at this dose. If required the dose may be increased to a maximum of 300mg daily.

Ventricular arrhythmias: The recommended starting dosage is 100mg twice daily. The maximum daily dose is 400mg and this is normally reserved for patients of large build or where rapid control of the arrhythmia is required.

After 3-5 days it is recommended that the dosage be progressively adjusted to the lowest level which maintains control of the arrhythmia. It may be possible to reduce dosage during long-term treatment.

Children: Tambocor is not recommended in children under 12, as there is insufficient evidence of its use in this age group.

Elderly Patients: The rate of flecainide elimination from plasma may be reduced in elderly people. This should be taken into consideration when making dose adjustments.

Plasma levels: Based on PVC suppression, it appears that plasma levels of 200-1000 ng/ml may be needed to obtain the maximum therapeutic effect. Plasma levels above 700-1000 ng/ml are associated with increased likelihood of adverse experiences.

Dosage in impaired renal function: In patients with significant renal impairment (creatinine clearance of 35ml/min/1.73 sq.m. or less) the maximum initial dosage should be 100mg daily (or 50mg twice daily).

When used in such patients, frequent plasma level monitoring is strongly recommended.

It is recommended that intravenous treatment with Tambocor should be administered in hospitals.

Treatment with oral Tambocor should be under direct hospital or specialist supervision for patients with:

a) AV nodal reciprocating tachycardia; arrhythmias associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome and similar conditions with accessory pathways

b) Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in patients with disabling symptoms.

Treatment for patients with other indications should continue to be initiated in hospital.

4.3 Contraindications

Tambocor is contra-indicated in cardiac failure and in patients with a history of myocardial infarction who have either asymptomatic ventricular ectopics or asymptomatic non-sustained ventricular tachycardia.

It is also contra-indicated in patients with long standing atrial fibrillation in whom there has been no attempt to convert to sinus rhythm, and in patients with haemodynamically significant valvular heart disease.

Unless pacing rescue is available, Tambocor should not be given to patients with sinus node dysfunction, atrial conduction defects, second degree or greater atrio-ventricular block, bundle branch block or distal block.

4.4 Special Warnings And Precautions For Use

Electrolyte disturbances should be corrected before using Tambocor.

Since flecainide elimination from the plasma can be markedly slower in patients with significant hepatic impairment, flecainide should not be used in such patients unless the potential benefits clearly outweigh the risks. Plasma level monitoring is strongly recommended in these circumstances.

Tambocor is known to increase endocardial pacing thresholds - ie to decrease endocardial pacing sensitivity. This effect is reversible and is more marked on the acute pacing threshold than on the chronic. Tambocor should thus be used with caution in all patients with permanent pacemakers or temporary pacing electrodes, and should not be administered to patients with existing poor thresholds or non-programmable pacemakers unless suitable pacing rescue is available.

Generally, a doubling of either pulse width or voltage is sufficient to regain capture, but it may be difficult to obtain ventricular thresholds less than 1 Volt at initial implantation in the presence of Tambocor.

The minor negative inotropic effect of flecainide may assume importance in patients predisposed to cardiac failure. Difficulty has been experienced in defibrillating some patients. Most of the cases reported had pre-existing heart disease with cardiac enlargement, a history of myocardial infarction, arterio-sclerotic heart disease and cardiac failure.

Tambocor should be avoided in patients with structural organic heart disease or abnormal left ventricular function.

Tambocor should be used with caution in patients with acute onset of atrial fibrillation following cardiac surgery.

In a large scale, placebo-controlled clinical trial in post-myocardial infarction patients with asymptomatic ventricular arrhythmia, oral flecainide was associated with a 2.2 fold higher incidence of mortality or non-fatal cardiac arrest as compared with its matching placebo. In that same study, an even higher incidence of mortality was observed in flecainide-treated patients with more than one myocardial infarction. Comparable placebo-controlled clinical trials have not been done to determine if flecainide is associated with higher risk of mortality in other patient groups.

4.5 Interaction With Other Medicinal Products And Other Forms Of Interaction

Flecainide is a class I anti-arrhythmic and interactions are possible with other anti-arrhythmic drugs where additive effects may occur or where drugs interfere with the metabolism of flecainide. The following known categories of drugs may intereact with flecainide:

Cardiac glycosides; Flecainide can cause the plasma digoxin level to rise by about 15%, which is unlikely to be of clinical significance for patients with plasma levels in the therapeutic range. It is recommended that the digoxin plasma level in digitalised patients should be measured not less than six hours after any digoxin dose, before or after administration of flecainide.

Class II anti-arrhythmics; the possibility of additive negative inotropic effects of beta-blockers, and other cardiac depressants such as verapamil, with flecainide should be recognised.

Class III anti-arrhythmics; when flecainide is given in the presence of amiodarone, the usual flecainide dosage should be reduced by 50% and the patient monitored closely for adverse effects. Plasma level monitoring is strongly recommended in these circumstances

Class IV anti-arrhythmics; use of flecainide with other sodium channel blockers is not recommended.

Anti-depressants; fluoxetine increases plasma flecainide concentration; increased risk of arrhythmias with tricyclics; manufacturer of reboxetine advises caution.

Anti-epileptics; limited data in patients receiving known enzyme inducers (phenytoin, phenobarbital, carbamazepine) indicate only a 30% increase in the rate of flecainide elimination.

Anti-psychotics: clozapine– increased risk of arrhythmias

Anti-histamines; increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias with mizolastine and terfenadine (avoid concomitant use)

Anti-malarials: quinine increases plasma concentration of flecainide.

Antivirals: plasma concentration increased by ritonavir, lopinavar and indinavir (increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias (avoid concomitant use)

Diuretics: Class effect due to hypokalaemia giving rise to cardiac toxicity.

Ulcer healing drugs: cimetidine inhibits metabolism of flecainide. In healthy subjects receiving cimetidine (1g daily) for one week, plasma flecainide levels increased by about 30% and the half-life increased by about 10%.

Anti-smoking aids: Co-administration of bupropion with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 isoenzyme including flecainide, should be approached with caution and should be initiated at the lower end of the dose range of the concomitant medication. If bupropion is added to the treatment regimen of a patient already receiving flecainide, the need to decrease the dose of the original medication should be considered.

Treatment with Tambocor is compatible with use of oral anti-coagulants.

4.6 Pregnancy And Lactation

There is no evidence as to drug safety in human pregnancy. In New Zealand White rabbits high doses of flecainide caused some foetal abnormalities, but these effects were not seen in Dutch Belted rabbits or rats. The relevance of these findings to humans has not been established. Data have shown that flecainide crosses the placenta to the foetus in patients taking flecainide during pregnancy.

Flecainide is excreted in human milk and appears in concentrations which reflect those in maternal blood. The risk of adverse effects to the nursing infant is very small.

4.7 Effects On Ability To Drive And Use Machines

No effect.

4.8 Undesirable Effects

Body as a Whole: Asthenia, fatigue, fever,oedema.

Cardiovascular: Pro-arrhythmic effects occur but are most likely in patients with structural heart disease and/or significant left ventricular impairment.

In patients with atrial flutter the use of Tambocor has been associated with

1:1 AV conduction following initial atrial slowing with resultant ventricular acceleration. This has been seen most commonly following the use of the injection for acute conversion. This effect is usually short lived and abates quickly following cessation of therapy.

The following adverse effects have also been reported.

AV block-second-degree and third degree, bradycardia, cardiac failure/congestive cardiac failure, chest pain, hypotension, myocardial infarction, palpitation, sinus pause or arrest and tachycardia (AT or VT).

Skin and Appendages: A range of allergic skin reactions have been reported including rashes, alopecia and rare but serious reports of urticaria. There have also been isolated cases of photosensitivity and rash.

Immune System: A small number of cases of increases in anti-nuclear antibodies have been reported, with and without systemic inflammatory involvement.

Haematological: Reductions in red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets have been occasionally reported. These changes are usually mild.

Psychiatric: Rarely, hallucinations, depression, confusion, amnesia, anxiety and insomnia have been reported.

Gastrointestinal: Occasionally nausea and vomiting. The following have also been reported: abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and flatulence (bloating)

Liver and Bilary System: A number of cases of elevated liver enzymes and jaundice have been reported in association with Tambocor treatment. So far this has always been reversible on stopping treatment. Hepatic dysfunction has also been reported.

Neurological: Most commonly giddiness, dizziness and lightheadedness which are usually transient. Rare instances of dyskinesia have been reported, which have improved on withdrawal of flecainide therapy. Rare instances of convulsions, and during long term therapy a few cases of peripheral neuropathy, paraesthesia and ataxia have been reported.There also have been reports of flushing, headache, hypoaesthesia, increased sweating, somnolence, syncope, tinnitus, tremor and vertigo.

Ophthalmological: Visual disturbances, such as double vision and blurring of vision may occur but these are usually transient and disappear upon continuing or reducing the dosage.

Extremely rare cases of corneal deposits have also been reported.

Respiratory: Dyspnoea and rare cases of pneumonitis have been reported.

4.9 Overdose

Overdosage with flecainide is a potentially life threatening medical emergency. No specific antidote is known. There is no known way of rapidly removing flecainide from the system, but forced acid diuresis may theoretically be helpful. Neither dialysis nor haemoperfusion is helpful and injections of anticholinergics are not recommended.

Treatment may include therapy with an inotropic agent, intravenous calcium, giving circulatory assistance (eg balloon pumping), mechanically assisting respiration, or temporarily inserting a transvenous pacemaker if there are severe conduction disturbances or the patient's left ventricular function is otherwise compromised.

5. Pharmacological Properties 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Tambocor is a Class 1 anti-arrhythmic (local anaesthetic) agent.

Tambocor slows conduction through the heart, having its greatest effect on His Bundle conduction. It also acts selectively to increase anterograde and particularly retrograde accessory pathway refractoriness. Its actions may be reflected in the ECG by prolongation of the PR interval and widening of the QRS complex. The effect on the JT interval is insignificant.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic Properties

Oral administration of flecainide results in extensive absorption, with bioavailability approaching 90 to 95%. Flecainide does not appear to undergo significant hepatic first-pass metabolism. In patients, 200 to 600 mg flecainide daily produced plasma concentrations within the therapeutic range of 200-1000 µg/L. Protein binding of flecainide is within the range 32 to 58%.

Recovery of unchanged flecainide in urine of healthy subjects was approximately 42% of a 200mg oral dose, whilst the two major metabolites (Meta-O-Dealkylated and Dealkylated Lactam Metabolites) accounted for a further 14% each. The elimination half-life was 12 to 27 hours.

5.3 Preclinical Safety Data

Not applicable

6. Pharmaceutical Particulars 6.1 List Of Excipients

Pregelatinised Starch, USNF

Croscarmellose Sodium, USNF

Microcrystalline Cellulose, Ph Eur

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, USNF

Magnesium Stearate, Ph Eur

6.2 Incompatibilities

None known

6.3 Shelf Life

5 years

6.4 Special Precautions For Storage

Do not store above 30°C. Keep container in the outer carton.

6.5 Nature And Contents Of Container

UPVC/PVDC blister packs containing 60 tablets

6.6 Special Precautions For Disposal And Other Handling

Not applicable

7. Marketing Authorisation Holder

Meda Pharmaceuticals Ltd

Skyway House

Parsonage Road

Takeley

Bishop's Stortford

CM22 6PU

United Kingdom

8. Marketing Authorisation Number(S)

PL 15142/0078

9. Date Of First Authorisation/Renewal Of The Authorisation

22 May 1997/ 16 March 2001

10. Date Of Revision Of The Text

13th July 2010



Generic Name: terbutaline inhalation (ter BYOO ta leen)



Class: Other Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Agents



Pronunciation: trye-METH-oh-BENZ-a-mide/BEN-zoe-kane



Class: Anticholinergic Agents



Pronunciation: TRET-i-noin



Generic Name: imipramine (im IP ra meen)



1. Name Of The Medicinal Product

Tritace Tablet Titration Pack 2.5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg tablets

2. Qualitative And Quantitative Composition

Tablets

Each 2.5 mg tablet contains ramipril 2.5 mg

Each 5 mg tablet contains ramipril 5 mg

Each 10 mg tablet contain ramipril 10 mg

For a full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical Form

Tablets 2.5 mg

Yellowish to yellow oblong tablets with score-line.

Upper stamp: 2.5 & logo (

Lower stamp: HMR & 2.5

The tablet can be divided into equal halves.

Tablets 5 mg

Pale red oblong tablets with score-line.

Upper stamp: 5 & logo (

Lower stamp: HMP & 5

The tablet can be divided into equal halves

Tablets 10 mg

White to almost white oblong tablets with score-line.

Upper stamp: HMO/HMO

The tablet can be divided into equal halves.

4. Clinical Particulars 4.1 Therapeutic Indications

- Treatment of hypertension.

- Cardiovascular prevention: reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with:

• manifest atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (history of coronary heart disease or stroke, or peripheral vascular disease) or

• diabetes with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (see section 5.1).

- Treatment of renal disease:

• Incipient glomerular diabetic nephropathy as defined by the presence of microalbuminuria,

• Manifest glomerular diabetic nephropathy as defined by macroproteinuria in patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor (see section 5.1),

• Manifest glomerular non diabetic nephropathy as defined by macroproteinuria

- Treatment of symptomatic heart failure.

- Secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction: reduction of mortality from the acute phase of myocardial infarction in patients with clinical signs of heart failure when started > 48 hours following acute myocardial infarction.

4.2 Posology And Method Of Administration

Oral use.

It is recommended that TRITACE is taken each day at the same time of the day.

TRITACE can be taken before, with or after meals, because food intake does not modify its bioavailability (see section 5.2).

TRITACE has to be swallowed with liquid. It must not be chewed or crushed.

Adults

Diuretic-Treated patients

Hypotension may occur following initiation of therapy with TRITACE; this is more likely in patients who are being treated concurrently with diuretics. Caution is therefore recommended since these patients may be volume and/or salt depleted. If possible, the diuretic should be discontinued 2 to 3 days before beginning therapy with TRITACE (see section 4.4).

In hypertensive patients in whom the diuretic is not discontinued, therapy with TRITACE should be initiated with a 1.25 mg dose. Renal function and serum potassium should be monitored. The subsequent dosage of TRITACE should be adjusted according to blood pressure target.

Hypertension

The dose should be individualised according to the patient profile (see section 4.4) and blood pressure control.

TRITACE may be used in monotherapy or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive medicinal products.

Starting dose

TRITACE should be started gradually with an initial recommended dose of 2.5 mg daily.

Patients with a strongly activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may experience an excessive drop in blood pressure following the initial dose. A starting dose of 1.25 mg is recommended in such patients and the initiation of treatment should take place under medical supervision (see section 4.4).

Titration and maintenance dose

The dose can be doubled at interval of two to four weeks to progressively achieve target blood pressure; the maximum permitted dose of TRITACE is 10 mg daily. Usually the dose is administered once daily.

Cardiovascular prevention

Starting dose

The recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg of TRITACE once daily.

Titration and maintenance dose

Depending on the patient's tolerability to the active substance, the dose should be gradually increased. It is recommended to double the dose after one or two weeks of treatment and - after another two to three weeks - to increase it up to the target maintenance dose of 10 mg TRITACE once daily.

See also posology on diuretic treated patients above.

Treatment of renal disease

In patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria:

Starting dose:

The recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg of TRITACE once daily.

Titration and maintenance dose

Depending on the patient's tolerability to the active substance, the dose is subsequently increased. Doubling the once daily dose to 2.5 mg after two weeks and then to 5 mg after a further two weeks is recommended.

In patients with diabetes and at least one cardiovascular risk

Starting dose:

The recommended initial dose is 2.5 mg of TRITACE once daily.

Titration and maintenance dose

Depending on the patient's tolerability to the active substance, the dose is subsequently increased. Doubling the daily dose to 5 mg TRITACE after one or two weeks and then to 10 mg TRITACE after a further two or three weeks is recommended. The target daily dose is 10 mg.

In patients with non- diabetic nephropathy as defined by macroproteinuria

Starting dose:

The recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg of TRITACE once daily.

Titration and maintenance dose

Depending on the patient's tolerability to the active substance, the dose is subsequently increased. Doubling the once daily dose to 2.5 mg after two weeks and then to 5 mg after a further two weeks is recommended.

Symptomatic heart failure

Starting dose

In patients stabilized on diuretic therapy, the recommended initial dose is 1.25 mg daily.

Titration and maintenance dose

TRITACE should be titrated by doubling the dose every one to two weeks up to a maximum daily dose of 10 mg. Two administrations per day are preferable.

Secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction and with heart failure

Starting dose

After 48 hours, following myocardial infarction in a clinically and haemodynamically stable patient, the starting dose is 2.5 mg twice daily for three days. If the initial 2.5 mg dose is not tolerated a dose of 1.25 mg twice a day should be given for two days before increasing to 2.5 mg and 5 mg twice a day. If the dose cannot be increased to 2.5 mg twice a day the treatment should be withdrawn.

See also posology on diuretic treated patients above.

Titration and maintenance dose

The daily dose is subsequently increased by doubling the dose at intervals of one to three days up to the target maintenance dose of 5 mg twice daily.

The maintenance dose is divided in 2 administrations per day where possible.

If the dose cannot be increased to 2.5 mg twice a day treatment should be withdrawn. Sufficient experience is still lacking in the treatment of patients with severe (NYHA IV) heart failure immediately after myocardial infarction. Should the decision be taken to treat these patients, it is recommended that therapy be started at 1.25 mg once daily and that particular caution be exercised in any dose increase.

Special populations

Patients with renal impairment

Daily dose in patients with renal impairment should be based on creatinine clearance (see section 5.2):

- if creatinine clearance is

- if creatinine clearance is between 30-60 ml/min, it is not necessary to adjust the initial dose (2.5 mg/day); the maximal daily dose is 5 mg;

- if creatinine clearance is between 10-30 ml/min, the initial dose is 1.25 mg/day and the maximal daily dose is 5 mg;

- in haemodialysed hypertensive patients: ramipril is slightly dialysable; the initial dose is 1.25 mg/day and the maximal daily dose is 5 mg; the medicinal product should be administered few hours after haemodialysis is performed.

Patients with hepatic impairment (see section 5.2)

In patients with hepatic impairment, treatment with TRITACE must be initiated only under close medical supervision and the maximum daily dose is 2.5 mg TRITACE.

Elderly

Initial doses should be lower and subsequent dose titration should be more gradual because of greater chance of undesirable effects especially in very old and frail patients. A reduced initial dose of 1.25 mg ramipril should be considered.

Paediatric population

The safety and efficacy of ramipril in children has not yet been established. Currently available data for TRITACE are described in sections 4.8, 5.1, 5.2 and 5.3 but no specific recommendation on posology can be made.

4.3 Contraindications

- Hypersensitivity to the active substance, to any of the excipients or any other ACE (Angiotensin Converting Enzyme) inhibitors (see section 6.1)

- History of angioedema (hereditary, idiopathic or due to previous angioedema with ACE inhibitors or AIIRAs)

- Extracorporeal treatments leading to contact of blood with negatively charged surfaces (see section 4.5)

- Significant bilateral renal artery stenosis or renal artery stenosis in a single functioning kidney

- Second and third trimesters of pregnancy (see sections 4.4 and 4.6)

- Ramipril must not be used in patients with hypotensive or haemodynamically unstable states.

4.4 Special Warnings And Precautions For Use

Special populations

Pregnancy: ACE inhibitors should not be initiated during pregnancy. Unless continued ACE inhibitor therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started (see sections 4.3 and 4.6).

- Patients at particular risk of hypotension

- Patients with strongly activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system

Patients with strongly activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are at risk of an acute pronounced fall in blood pressure and deterioration of renal function due to ACE inhibition, especially when an ACE inhibitor or a concomitant diuretic is given for the first time or at first dose increase.

Significant activation of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is to be anticipated and medical supervision including blood pressure monitoring is necessary, for example in:

- patients with severe hypertension

- patients with decompensated congestive heart failure

- patients with haemodynamically relevant left ventricular inflow or outflow impediment (e.g. stenosis of the aortic or mitral valve)

- patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis with a second functional kidney

- patients in whom fluid or salt depletion exists or may develop (including patients with diuretics)

- patients with liver cirrhosis and/or ascites

- patients undergoing major surgery or during anaesthesia with agents that produce hypotension.

Generally, it is recommended to correct dehydration, hypovolaemia or salt depletion before initiating treatment (in patients with heart failure, however, such corrective action must be carefully weighed out against the risk of volume overload).

- Transient or persistent heart failure post MI

- Patients at risk of cardiac or cerebral ischemia in case of acute hypotension

The initial phase of treatment requires special medical supervision.

- Elderly patients

See section 4.2.

Surgery

It is recommended that treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors such as ramipril should be discontinued where possible one day before surgery.

Monitoring of renal function

Renal function should be assessed before and during treatment and dosage adjusted especially in the initial weeks of treatment. Particularly careful monitoring is required in patients with renal impairment (see section 4.2). There is a risk of impairment of renal function, particularly in patients with congestive heart failure or after a renal transplant.

Angioedema

Angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors including ramipril (see section 4.8).

In case of angioedema, TRITACE must be discontinued.

Emergency therapy should be instituted promptly. Patient should be kept under observation for at least 12 to 24 hours and discharged after complete resolution of the symptoms.

Intestinal angioedema has been reported in patients treated with ACE inhibitors including TRITACE (see section 4.8). These patients presented with abdominal pain (with or without nausea or vomiting).

Anaphylactic reactions during desensitization

The likelihood and severity of anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions to insect venom and other allergens are increased under ACE inhibition. A temporary discontinuation of TRITACE should be considered prior to desensitization.

Hyperkalaemia

Hyperkalaemia has been observed in some patients treated with ACE inhibitors including TRITACE. Patients at risk for development of hyperkalaemia include those with renal insufficiency, age (> 70 years), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, or those using potassium salts, potassium retaining diuretics and other plasma potassium increasing active substances, or conditions such as dehydration, acute cardiac decompensation, metabolic acidosis. If concomitant use of the above mentioned agents is deemed appropriate, regular monitoring of serum potassium is recommended (see section 4.5).

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis

Neutropenia/agranulocytosis, as well as thrombocytopenia and anaemia, have been rarely seen and bone marrow depression has also been reported. It is recommended to monitor the white blood cell count to permit detection of a possible leucopoenia. More frequent monitoring is advised in the initial phase of treatment and in patients with impaired renal function, those with concomitant collagen disease (e.g. lupus erythematosus or scleroderma), and all those treated with other medicinal products that can cause changes in the blood picture (see sections 4.5 and 4.8).

Ethnic differences

ACE inhibitors cause higher rate of angioedema in black patients than in non black patients. As with other ACE inhibitors, ramipril may be less effective in lowering blood pressure in black people than in non black patients, possibly because of a higher prevalence of hypertension with low renin level in the black hypertensive population.

Cough

Cough has been reported with the use of ACE inhibitors. Characteristically, the cough is nonproductive, persistent and resolves after discontinuation of therapy. ACE inhibitor-induced cough should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis of cough.

4.5 Interaction With Other Medicinal Products And Other Forms Of Interaction

Contra-indicated combinations

Extracorporeal treatments leading to contact of blood with negatively charged surfaces such as dialysis or haemofiltration with certain high-flux membranes (e.g. polyacrylonitril membranes) and low density lipoprotein apheresis with dextran sulphate due to increased risk of severe anaphylactoid reactions (see section 4.3). If such treatment is required, consideration should be given to using a different type of dialysis membrane or a different class of antihypertensive agent.

Precautions for use

Potassium salts, heparin, potassium-retaining diuretics and other plasma potassium increasing active substances (including Angiotensin II antagonists, trimethoprim, tacrolimus, ciclosporin): Hyperkalaemia may occur, therefore close monitoring of serum potassium is required.

Antihypertensive agents (e.g. diuretics) and other substances that may decrease blood pressure (e.g. nitrates, tricyclic antidepressants, anaesthetics, acute alcohol intake, baclofen, alfuzosin, doxazosin, prazosin, tamsulosin, terazosin): Potentiation of the risk of hypotension is to be anticipated (see section 4.2 for diuretics)

Vasopressor sympathomimetics and other substances (e.g. isoproterenol, dobutamine, dopamine, epinephrine) that may reduce the antihypertensive effect of TRITACE: Blood pressure monitoring is recommended.

Allopurinol, immunosuppressants, corticosteroids, procainamide, cytostatics and other substances that may change the blood cell count: Increased likelihood of haematological reactions (see section 4.4).

Lithium salts: Excretion of lithium may be reduced by ACE inhibitors and therefore lithium toxicity may be increased. Lithium level must be monitored.

Antidiabetic agents including insulin: Hypoglycaemic reactions may occur. Blood glucose monitoring is recommended.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and acetylsalicylic acid: Reduction of the antihypertensive effect of TRITACE is to be anticipated. Furthermore, concomitant treatment of ACE inhibitors and NSAIDs may lead to an increased risk of worsening of renal function and to an increase in kalaemia.

4.6 Pregnancy And Lactation

Pregnancy

The use of ACE inhibitors is not recommended during the first trimester of pregnancy (see section 4.4). The use of ACE inhibitors is contraindicated during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).

Epidemiological evidence regarding the risk of teratogenicity following exposure to ACE inhibitors during the first trimester of pregnancy has not been conclusive; however a small increase in risk cannot be excluded. Unless continued ACE inhibitor therapy is considered essential, patients planning pregnancy should be changed to alternative anti-hypertensive treatments which have an established safety profile for use in pregnancy. When pregnancy is diagnosed, treatment with ACE inhibitors should be stopped immediately, and, if appropriate, alternative therapy should be started.

Exposure to ACE inhibitor therapy during the second and third trimesters is known to induce human foetotoxicity (decreased renal function, oligohydramnios, skull ossification retardation) and neonatal toxicity (renal failure, hypotension, hyperkalaemia) (see section 5.3). Should exposure to ACE inhibitors have occurred from the second trimester of pregnancy, ultrasound check of renal function and skull is recommended. Infants whose mothers have taken ACE inhibitors should be closely observed for hypotension (see sections 4.3 and 4.4).

Lactation

Because insufficient information is available regarding the use of ramipril during breastfeeding (see section 5.2), Tritace is not recommended and alternative treatments with better established safety profiles during breast-feeding are preferable, especially while nursing a newborn or preterm infant.

4.7 Effects On Ability To Drive And Use Machines

Some adverse effects (e.g. symptoms of a reduction in blood pressure such as dizziness) may impair the patient's ability to concentrate and react and, therefore, constitute a risk in situations where these abilities are of particular importance (e.g. operating a vehicle or machinery).

This can happen especially at the start of treatment, or when changing over from other preparations. After the first dose or subsequent increases in dose it is not advisable to drive or operate machinery for several hours.

4.8 Undesirable Effects

The safety profile of ramipril includes persistent dry cough and reactions due to hypotension. Serious adverse reactions include angioedema, hyperkalaemia, renal or hepatic impairment, pancreatitis, severe skin reactions and neutropenia/agranulocytosis.

Adverse reactions frequency is defined using the following convention:

Very common (

Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.

 

Common

Uncommon

Rare

Very rare

Not known

Cardiac disorders

 

Myocardial ischaemia including angina pectoris or myocardial infarction, tachycardia, arrhythmia, palpitations, oedema peripheral

     

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

 

Eosinophilia

White blood cell count decreased (including neutropenia or agranulocytosis), red blood cell count decreased, haemoglobin decreased, platelet count decreased

 

Bone marrow failure, pancytopenia, haemolytic anaemia

Nervous system disorders

Headache, dizziness

Vertigo, paraesthesia, ageusia, dysgeusia,

Tremor, balance disorder

 

Cerebral ischaemia including ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack, psychomotor skills impaired, burning sensation, parosmia

Eye disorders

 

Visual disturbance including blurred vision

Conjunctivitis

   

Ear and labyrinth disorders

   

Hearing impaired, tinnitus

   

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Non-productive tickling cough, bronchitis, sinusitis, dyspnoea

Bronchospasm including asthma aggravated, nasal congestion

     

Gastrointestinal disorders

Gastrointestinal inflammation, digestive disturbances, abdominal discomfort, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting

Pancreatitis (cases of fatal outcome have been very exceptionally reported with ACE inhibitors), pancreatic enzymes increased, small bowel angioedema, abdominal pain upper including gastritis, constipation, dry mouth

Glossitis

 

Aphtous stomatitis

Renal and urinary disorders

 

Renal impairment including renal failure acute, urine output increased, worsening of a pre-existing proteinuria, blood urea increased, blood creatinine increased

     

Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders

Rash in particular maculo-papular

Angioedema; very exceptionally, the airway obstruction resulting from angioedema may have a fatal outcome; pruritus, hyperhidrosis

Exfoliative dermatitis, urticaria, onycholysis,

Photosensitivity reaction

Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, pemphigus, psoriasis aggravated, dermatitis psoriasiform, pemphigoid or lichenoid exanthema or enanthema, alopecia

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Muscle spasms, myalgia

Arthralgia

     

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Blood potassium increased

Anorexia, decreased appetite,

   

Blood sodium decreased

Vascular disorders

Hypotension, orthostatic blood pressure decreased, syncope

Flushing

Vascular stenosis, hypoperfusion, vasculitis

 

Raynaud's phenomenon

General disorders and administration site conditions

Chest pain, fatigue

Pyrexia

Asthenia

   

Immune system disorders

       

Anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions, antinuclear antibody increased

Hepatobiliary disorders

 

Hepatic enzymes and/or bilirubin conjugated increased,

Jaundice cholestatic, hepatocellular damage

 

Acute hepatic failure, cholestatic or cytolytic hepatitis (fatal outcome has been very exceptional).

Reproductive system and breast disorders

 

Transient erectile impotence, libido decreased

   

Gynaecomastia

Psychiatric disorders

 

Depressed mood, anxiety, nervousness, restlessness, sleep disorder including somnolence

Confusional state

 

Disturbance in attention

Paediatric Population

The safety of ramipril was monitored in 325 children and adolescents, aged 2-16 years old during 2 clinical trials. Whilst the nature and severity of the adverse events are similar to that of the adults, the frequency of the following is higher in the children:

Tachycardia, nasal congestion and rhinitis, “common” (i.e.

Conjunctivitis “common” (i.e.

Tremor and urticaria “uncommon” (i.e.

The overall safety profile for ramipril in paediatric patients dose not differ significantly from the safety profile in adults.

4.9 Overdose

Symptoms associated with overdosage of ACE inhibitors may include excessive peripheral vasodilatation (with marked hypotension, shock), bradycardia, electrolyte disturbances, and renal failure. The patient should be closely monitored and the treatment should be symptomatic and supportive. Suggested measures include primary detoxification (gastric lavage, administration of adsorbents) and measures to restore haemodynamic stability, including, administration of alpha 1 adrenergic agonists or angiotensin II (angiotensinamide) administration. Ramiprilat, the active metabolite of ramipril is poorly removed from the general circulation by haemodialysis.

5. Pharmacological Properties 5.1 Pharmacodynamic Properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: ACE Inhibitors, plain, ATC code C09AA05.

Mechanism of action

Ramiprilat, the active metabolite of the prodrug ramipril, inhibits the enzyme dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase I (synonyms: angiotensin-converting enzyme; kininase II). In plasma and tissue this enzyme catalyses the conversion of angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor substance angiotensin II, as well as the breakdown of the active vasodilator bradykinin. Reduced angiotensin II formation and inhibition of bradykinin breakdown lead to vasodilatation.

Since angiotensin II also stimulates the release of aldosterone, ramiprilat causes a reduction in aldosterone secretion. The average response to ACE inhibitor monotherapy was lower in black (Afro-Caribbean) hypertensive patients (usually a low-renin hypertensive population) than in non-black patients.

Pharmacodynamic effects

Antihypertensive properties:

Administration of ramipril causes a marked reduction in peripheral arterial resistance. Generally, there are no major changes in renal plasma flow and glomerular filtration rate. Administration of ramipril to patients with hypertension leads to a reduction in supine and standing blood pressure without a compensatory rise in heart rate.

In most patients the onset of the antihypertensive effect of a single dose becomes apparent 1 to 2 hours after oral administration. The peak effect of a single dose is usually reached 3 to 6 hours after oral administration. The antihypertensive effect of a single dose usually lasts for 24 hours.

The maximum antihypertensive effect of continued treatment with ramipril is generally apparent after 3 to 4 weeks. It has been shown that the antihypertensive effect is sustained under long term therapy lasting 2 years.

Abrupt discontinuation of ramipril does not produce a rapid and excessive rebound increase in blood pressure.

Heart failure:

In addition to conventional therapy with diuretics and optional cardiac glycosides, ramipril has been shown to be effective in patients with functional classes II-IV of the New-York Heart Association. The drug had beneficial effects on cardiac haemodynamics (decreased left and right ventricular filling pressures, reduced total peripheral vascular resistance, increased cardiac output and improved cardiac index). It also reduced neuroendocrine activation.

Clinical efficacy and safety

Cardiovascular prevention/Nephroprotection;

A preventive placebo-controlled study (the HOPE-study), was carried out in which ramipril was added to standard therapy in more than 9,200 patients. Patients with increased risk of cardiovascular disease following either atherothrombotic cardiovascular disease (history of coronary heart disease, stroke or peripheral vascular disease) or diabetes mellitus with at least one additional risk factor (documented microalbuminuria, hypertension, elevated total cholesterol level, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level or cigarette smoking) were included in the study.

The study showed that ramipril statistically significantly decreases the incidence of myocardial infarction, death from cardiovascular causes and stroke, alone and combined (primary combined events).

The HOPE Study: Main Results;

 

Ramipril

Placebo

relative risk

(95% confidence interval)

p-value

 

%

%

   

All patients

n=4,645

N=4,652

 

 

Primary combined events

14.0

17.8

0.78 (0.70-0.86)

<0.001

Myocardial infarction

9.9

12.3

0.80 (0.70-0.90)

<0.001

Death from cardiovascular causes

6.1

8.1

0.74 (0.64-0.87)

<0.001

Stroke

3.4

4.9

0.68 (0.56-0.84)

<0.001

         

Secondary endpoints

 

 

 

 

Death from any cause

10.4

12.2

0.84 (0.75-0.95)

0.005

Need for Revascularisation

16.0

18.3

0.85 (0.77-0.94)

0.002

Hospitalisation for unstable angina

12.1

12.3

0.98 (0.87-1.10)

NS

Hospitalisation for heart failure

3.2

3.5

0.88 (0.70-1.10)

0.25

Complications related to diabetes

6.4

7.6

0.84 (0.72-0.98)

0.03

The MICRO-HOPE study, a predefined substudy from HOPE, investigated the effect of the addition of ramipril 10 mg to the current medical regimen versus placebo in 3,577 patients at least

The primary analysis showed that 117 (6.5 %) participants on ramipril and 149 (8.4 %) on placebo developed overt nephropathy, which corresponds to a RRR 24 %; 95 % CI [3-40], p = 0.027.

The REIN study, a multicenter randomized, double-blind parallel group, placebo-controlled study aimed at a





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